Energy Generation

1- Wind Power

 Contribution to ZCE Target 18%

wind

What is working well in Edinburgh already
Examples already working well in and around Edinburgh include:
In general the advice is that (large-scale) wind turbines are not well suited to urban areas as although there may be wind there is also turbulence.
So while there are no wind turbines in Edinburgh itself, the “Energy Supply” page on the Scotland Heat Map shows many wind farms both north and south of Edinburgh.
Further afield, the Seabird Centre at North Berwick has a small wind turbine and Aikengall Community Wind Farm which is located south of Dunbar in East Lothian.
You can see how a wind farm works by taking an excursion to the Visitor Centre at Whitelee Windfarm at Eaglesham near Glasgow: https://www.scottishpower.co.uk/whitelee

sautrahill
Soutra Hill Wind Farm, © Niall Benvie

What you can do
Individual: Switch to a green electricity supplier which provides you with electricity from wind and other sustainable energy sources. Compare and find the best tariffs from the different green suppliers: http://www.greenelectricity.org/
Community: Join a community scheme to invest in a wind farm or create a community scheme with your local community! Local Energy Scotland can provide financial support and impartial advice: http://www.localenergyscotland.org/
Business: Switch to a green business electricity supplier which provides you with electricity from wind and other sustainable energy sources. Compare and find the best tariffs from the different green suppliers: http://www.greenelectricity.org/

Zero Carbon Britain Contribution to ZCB Target of 650 MT CO2e: 120 MT
In a Zero Carbon Britain we could produce over 1 ½ times our current electricity supply, but we would need tens of thousands of turbines. Source: http://zerocarbonbritain.com

Places to Visit SeabirdCentre, North  Berwick , Whitelee Windfarm


 2- Marine Power

Contribution to ZCE Target     1%

marineWhat is working well in Edinburgh already
Examples already working well in and around Edinburgh include:
In the region of Edinburgh there are currently no wave or tidal power facilities installed. Also, the capacities for doing so are estimated to be limited here, according to Edinburgh-based tidal company Nova Innovation.
● Wave power: Wave Energy Scotland (WES) – a subsidiary of Highlands and Islands Enterprise, is one of only a few wave power companies active in Scotland at the moment. All of the testing and demonstration work for wave power is done in the Orkney Islands at The European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC), which is a world leader in this new technology. Web: http://www.emec.org.uk
● Tidal power: MeyGen is the world’s first large-scale tidal energy farm of 10MW in the Inner Sound of the Pentland Firth, located between the Scottish mainland and the Orkney Islands.

pelamis
Pelamis wave power system, © EMEC
meygen
MeyGen Tidal Energy Farm, © Atlantis Resources

What you can do
Individual: Switch to a green electricity supplier which provides you with electricity from wind and other sustainable energy sources. Compare and find the best tariffs from the different green suppliers: http://www.greenelectricity.org
Community: Join a community scheme to invest in a renewable energy source or create a community scheme with your local community! Local Energy Scotland can provide financial support and impartial advice: http://www.localenergyscotland.org/
Business: Switch to a green business electricity supplier which provides you with electricity from wind and other sustainable energy sources. Compare and find the best tariffs from the different green suppliers: http://www.greenelectricity.org/

Zero Carbon Britain Contribution to ZCB Target of 650 MT CO2e 10 MT
The calculations suggest that wave energy could provide up to 10% of our current electricity supply. Tidal could produce up to 40% and unlike winds and sunshine the tides are predictable. Source: http://zerocarbonbritain.com

Places to visit Wave power demonstration: The European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC), Orkney Islands – MeyGen tidal energy farm, Inner Sound of the Pentland Firth.


3- Solar PV

Contribution to ZCE Target     2%

PVWhat’s already working well in Edinburgh?
Examples already working well in and around Edinburgh include:
The Edinburgh Community Solar Co-op has installed PV arrays on 24 public buildings. Three large ones are on Leisure Centres: Tumbles in Portobello, Drumbrae North by Corstorphine and Ainslie Park in Pilton. These are usually open to the public. Panels are on the roofs and a visual display showing performance (installation from August 2017). These installations save about 1 tonne CO2e / year. Edinburgh College Dalkeith Campus has a Solar Meadow, installed by Scottish and Southern Energy in 2012. The college runs training courses on solar technologies.
Domestic PV installations are increasing. Despite the cut in Feed in Tariff, PV prices have fallen so fast that payback time can still be less than eight years.
As of January 2017, there is a total installed capacity of 11,642 megawatt (MW) of PV solar power in the UK, making the UK sixth in terms of global total installed capacity. In 2016 the UK generated 3.4% of its total electricity using solar power. In Scotland, solar power currently contributes 1.4% to renewable electricity production. Sources: Wikipedia, BEIS Energy Trends

college PV
Solar meadow at Edinburgh College
Eskbank / Dalkeith Campus, © Edinburgh College

What you can do
Individual:
– Does your home have a roof that is good for PV panels? If your home has a south-facing roof, and is not in a conservation area, you can investigate the possibility of installing PV panels. Phone 0808 808 2282 for impartial advice or visit: http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/renewable-energy/electricity/solar-panels.
– If solar panels are not for you, consider investing in a Community Energy scheme.
– Switch to a green electricity supplier which provides you with electricity from solar and other sustainable energy sources. Compare and find the best tariffs from the different green suppliers: http://www.greenelectricity.org/
Community: Identify a building with a high day time electricity demand and create a community group to invest in a community solar panel installation: http://www.edinburghsolar.coop/share-offer/register-your-interest/ .
Business: If your electricity demand is not only during daylight hours consider installing a battery as well as PV panels. If your place of work has a south-facing roof, and is not in a conservation area, you can investigate the possibility of installing PV panels. Phone 0808 808 2282 for impartial advice or visit: http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/renewable-energy/electricity/solar-panels.

Contribution towards the total 650 MT CO2eZero Carbon Britain target: 10
If all south facing roofs had PV panels they could produce about 40% of Britain’s current annual electricity demand. Solar PV could cut emissions of 10 million tonnes of CO2 over the whole of Britain. As PV arrays generate most in summer they have to be used with other technologies to meet our needs all the year round. Source: http://zerocarbonbritain.com

Places to visit: Solar Co-op equipped Leisure Centres, Edinburgh College, Scottish Centre for Regenerative Medicine.


4- Hydroelectricity

Contribution to ZCE Target     1%

hydroWhat is working well in Edinburgh already?
Examples already working well in and around Edinburgh include:
● Within Edinburgh, Harlaw Hydro is a community owned scheme. It can be seen next to the Harlaw visitor centre, close to Balerno. For more information please visit:www.harlawhydro.org.uk
● Locally the Water of Leith powered more than 70 mills in the 19th century.
● The City of Edinburgh Council plan to install a reverse Archimedes screw generator on the Water of Leith in Saughton Park.

harlaw
Harlow Hydropower scheme. © Harlaw Hydro

What you can do?
Individual: Use your skills and enthusiasm and join a hydropower scheme such as the Harlow Hydro scheme: http://www.harlawhydro.org.uk/about-us/get-involved/#.WbUYG8bkXIU
Community: Few of us have rivers in our back gardens, but there may be opportunities to set up a community scheme. Support from http://www.energy4all.co.uk and http://communityenergyscotland.org.uk/
Business: Sponsor events and activities of Hydropower schemes such as the Harlow Hydro scheme:
http://www.harlawhydro.org.uk/about-us/background/#.WbUZE8bkXIU.

Zero Carbon Britain Contribution to ZCB Target of 650 MT CO2e : 10 MT
The model developed by CAT suggests that there may not be much scope for more large scale hydropower schemes in the UK but small micro schemes could double the electricity we generate from hydro power.
Hydro could cut emissions of 10 million tonnes of CO2 over the whole of Britain. Source: http://zerocarbonbritain.com

Places to visit Harlaw Hydro


5- Biomass Fuel

Contribution to ZCE Target 4%

biomassWhat is working well in Edinburgh already?
Examples already working well in and around Edinburgh include:
There are anaerobic digesters at Seafield and Millerhill. Food waste collection by the City recycling service are treated at these sites. Millerhill opened early in 2017: http://www.zerowastefuture.com. The Seafield waste treatment works does more than treat sewage – it also produces biogas and thermal hydrolysis cake, which can be used as fertiliser in agriculture.
Biomass heating system providers and sellers of wood chips and pellets already exist in the Scottish capital, e.g. http://pentlandbiomass.com or http://edinburghwoodlands.co.uk.

Did you know? Napier University is developing a process for making fuel for lorries and planes from the waste barley material residual in breweries.

Millerhill1
Biomass plant at Millerhill, ©Zerowastefuture.com

What you can do?
Individual:
– Consider installing a biomass boiler using wood chips or pellets as your heating system.The Scottish Government offers loans of up to £2,000. See: http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/scotland/Scotland-Welcome-page/At-Home/Generate-your-own-energy/Home-renewables-loan-scheme. Also, the Renewable Heat Premium Payment scheme gives money to householders to help them buy renewable heating technologies – solar thermal panels, heat pumps and biomass boilers.
– Be sure to recycle your food waste and garden rubbish.
– Find out what happens to the food waste such as unsold fruit and veg or meat at your local supermarket.
Community: Set up a community group for creating community energy with biomass energy from the woodlands. The Forestry Commission provides help inclusive a list of funding opportunities: https://www.forestry.gov.uk/communitybiomass.
Business: Ensure your food waste goes to Millerhill or Seafield.

Contribution towards the total 650 MT CO2eZero Carbon Britain target: 30MT

Biomass can be burned to produce both heat and electricity. It can also be used to produce gas and liquid fuels. These could be stored to generate electricity when other sources are not sufficient. Source: http://zerocarbonbritain.com
NB: In order to truly contribute to a zero carbon future, the biomass must be from a sustainable source. See also ‘growing energy crops’.

Places to visit:  Seafield and Millerhill


6- Energy Storage

Contribution to ZCE Target     5%

storageWhat is working well in Edinburgh already?
Examples already working well in and around Edinburgh include:
In the Edinburgh area, the Levenmouth Community Energy Project, Methil, in Fife, is a good example of how the issue of varying energy supply and demand can be solved through the installation of a state-of-the-art hydrogen-based energy storage system, as well as two mobile hydrogen vehicle refuelling units and waste collection vans running on hydrogen. For more info see: http://brightgreenhydrogen.org.uk/home/levenmouth-community-energy-project-2/levenmouth-community-energy-project/
There are also new storage technologies such as the one Edinburgh-based company Gravitricity uses, which combines characteristics of lithium batteries and pumped storage. Sunamp has developed a storage technology similar to that used in old storage heater systems.

storage
Domestic Tesla storage battery, © Johanna Carrie

What you can do?
Individual: Buy solar panels and battery storage, e.g. from IKEA: http://www.ikea.com/gb/en/ikea/solar-panels
Community: Support a community energy storage scheme or organisation such Community Energy Scotland: http://www.communityenergyscotland.org.uk/support-us.asp
Business: Consider generating your own on-site renewable energy and store it when not needed. Commercial solutions for this are already available, e.g. from the company Anesco : http://anesco.co.uk/energy-storage/

Zero Carbon Britain Contribution to ZCB Target of 650 MT CO2e: 30 MT
In a future with lots of renewables our energy supply and demand won’t match up renewable energy is variable – sometimes there is too little and sometimes too much.
The first solution is to shift demand to match supply, heat your hot water electrically when the PV is generating. The next is to store energy when there is too much. Options include batteries and pumped storage systems. To store more energy for longer we can make hydrogen from electricity and use it to produce synthetic transport fuels or use it for heating when needed. Source: http://zerocarbonbritain.com

Places to visit: Levenmouth Community Energy Project, Methil, Fife.
SunAmp has demo sites in East Lothian


 

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